Hydro energy
river
Hydropower is a clean, renewable and reliable energy source which converts kinetic energy from falling water into electricity, without consuming more water than is produced by nature.
Quite simply the oldest method by which renewable energy has been harnessed by the human race. The first water wheels were used well over 2000 years ago, and the technology has since been refined to become very efficient in the production of electricity.
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The potential energy stored in a body of water held at a given height is converted to kinetic energy (movement energy) which is used to turn a turbine and create electricity.

vodenicaMechanical energy is derived by directing, harnessing, or channeling moving water. The amount of available energy in moving water is determined by its flow or fall.

In either instance, the water flows through a pipe, or penstock, then pushes against and turns blades in a turbine to spin a generator to produce electricity. In a run-of-the-river system, the force of the current applies the needed pressure, while in a storage system, water is accumulated in reservoirs created by dams, then released when the demand for electricity is high.

Meanwhile, the reservoirs or lakes are used for boating and fishing, and often the rivers beyond the dams provide opportunities for whitewater rafting and kayaking.
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Converting moving water to electricity

In order to generate electricity from the kinetic energy in moving water, the water has to be moving with sufficient speed and volume to turn a generator. Roughly speaking, one gallon of water per second falling one hundred feet can generate one kilowatt of electrical power.

To increase the force of moving water, impoundments or dams are used to raise the water level, creating a "hydraulic head," or height differential. When water behind a dam is released, it runs through a pipe called a penstock, and is delivered to the turbine.

Hydroelectric generation can also work without dams, in a process known as diversion, or run-of-the-river. Portions of water from fast-flowing rivers, often at or near waterfalls, can be diverted through a penstock to a turbine set in the river or off to the side. The generating stations at Niagara Falls are an example of diversion hydropower. Another run-of-the-river design uses a traditional water wheel on a floating platform to capture the kinetic force of the moving river. While this approach is inexpensive and easy to implement, it doesn't produce much power. The entire Amazon River, if harnessed this way, would produce only 650 MW of power.

powerhydroAnother type of hydropower, though not a true energy source, is pumped storage. In a pumped storage plant, water is pumped from a lower reservoir to a higher reservoir during off-peak times, using electricity generated from other types of energy sources. When the power is needed, it is released back into the lower reservoir through turbines. Inevitably, some power is lost, but pumped storage systems can be up to 80 percent efficient.

There is currently more than 90 GW of pumped storage capacity worldwide, with about one-quarter of that in the United States. Future increases in pumped storage capacity could result from the integration of hydropower and wind power technologies. Researchers believe that hydropower may be able to act as a battery for wind power by storing water during high wind periods.
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The components of a typical hydro system are as follows:
· An intake, often incorporated into a weir to diverts of the flow from the water course;
· A penstock pipe to convey the water to the turbine;
· A powerhouse, in which the turbine and generator convert the water's energy into electricity;
· An outflow through which the water is released back to the river or stream;
· Underground cables or overhead lines to transmit the electricity to it's point of use. These must be short enough to minimize 'voltage drop';
 
 
     

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